Monday, March 7, 2016

Essential Components of Hydro Power Plant

•Power system

It contains three parts namely generation , transmission and distribution of electricity.


It means how to generate electricity from available sources.

•Power plant:

     It is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power. Some of the power plant classified on the basis of energy source harnessed to generate electricity are
a.Thermal power plant(uses heat from combustion of fuel)
b.Nuclear power plant(uses nuclear energy like uranium)
c.Hydroelectric power plant(renewable energy source water)

•Hydroelectric Plant(HEP):

Water flowing in river comprised of potential energy and kinetic energy. In hydroelectric power plant the potential energy of water is utilized to produce electricity.
The plant that produces electricity by use of gravitational  force of falling water.

•Head :

Difference between upper reservoir and lower reservoir.

Image result for inside a hydropower plant


It is a concrete structure built across a river. It is built where height is sufficient to get maximum potential energy from water. Its function  are:
To provide head of water .
To create storage or pondage.

•Water Reservoir :

It stores water.
Amount of water decides the potential energy.

•Intake or control gates:

The water from reservoir is released and controlled through these gates. These are called inlet gates because water enters the power generation unit through these gates.


The penstock is the long pipe or the shaft that carries the water flowing from the reservoir towards the power generation unit, comprised of the turbines and generator.
The water in the penstock possesses kinetic energy due to its motion and potential energy due to its height.

Water Turbines:

 It converts KE and PE to rotational energy.


It converts rotational energy (mechanical energy) to electricity.


 1.Nepali hydroelectric potential is theoretical estimated at 83,000 megawatt and economically feasible hydropower potential is approximately 40,000 MW. 
  2.Enough to secure future economic growth for itself and its neighbors, carbon free, for the next 500 years. 
Installed capacity 600 MW and largest hydropower project of our country is kaligandaki A i.e 144 MW.Only 40% of Nepalese population has access to it.
 3.Running water is available at free of the cost. It is also a clean fuel(no smoke,co ) and is a renewable source (that is not depleted ).
 4.It is the oldest and cheapest method of power generation.(  Dams are designed to last many decades and so can contribute to the generation of electricity for many years / decades.)
 5.Quick starting (Once a dam is constructed, electricity can be produced at a cons tant rate.)
 6.Less supervising staff is needed.


1.Large land requirement with high capital cost.
2.Heavy civil engg. Construction work is needed.
3.For producing 1 MW electricity it requires nearly 10 crore Npr.
4.Flooding of water may take place destroying the nearby natural environment, villages,towns,etc.